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Berg, A., Forsberg, E., and Wernerman, J. The local vascular tolerance to an intravenous infusion of a concentrated glutamine solution in ICU patients. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(2):135-139. View abstract.

Blijlevens, N. M., Donnelly, J. P., Naber, A. H., Schattenberg, A. V., and DePauw, B. E. A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, pilot study of parenteral glutamine for allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. Support.Care Cancer 2005;13(10):790-796. View abstract.

Bober-Olesinska, K. and Kornacka, M. K. [Effects of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, nosocomial sepsis and length of hospital stay in very low birth weight infants]. Med Wieku.Rozwoj. 2005;9(3 Pt 1):325-333. View abstract.

Boelens, P. G., Houdijk, A. P., de Thouars, H. N., Teerlink, T., van Engeland, M. I., Haarman, H. J., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Plasma taurine concentrations increase after enteral glutamine supplementation in trauma patients and stressed rats. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;77(1):250-256. View abstract.

Boelens, P. G., Houdijk, A. P., Fonk, J. C., Nijveldt, R. J., Ferwerda, C. C., von Blomberg-van der Flier BM, Thijs, L. G., Haarman, H. J., Puyana, J. C., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition increases HLA-DR expression on monocytes of trauma patients. J.Nutr. 2002;132(9):2580-2586. View abstract.

Boelens, P. G., Houdijk, A. P., Fonk, J. C., Puyana, J. C., Haarman, H. J., von Blomberg-van der Flier ME, and van Leeuwen, P. A. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition increases in vitro interferon-gamma production but does not influence the in vivo specific antibody response to KLH after severe trauma. A prospective, double blind, randomized clinical study. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(3):391-400. View abstract.

Borel, M. J., Williams, P. E., Jabbour, K., Levenhagen, D., Kaizer, E., and Flakoll, P. J. Parenteral glutamine infusion alters insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1998;22(5):280-285. View abstract.

Boza, J. J., Dangin, M., Moennoz, D., Montigon, F., Vuichoud, J., Jarret, A., Pouteau, E., Gremaud, G., Oguey-Araymon, S., Courtois, D., Woupeyi, A., Finot, P. A., and Ballevre, O. Free and protein-bound glutamine have identical splanchnic extraction in healthy human volunteers. Am.J.Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2001;281(1):G267-G274. View abstract.

Buchman, A. L. Glutamine for short-bowel syndrome. Curr.Gastroenterol.Rep. 2002;4(4):321. View abstract.

Byrne, T. A., Wilmore, D. W., Iyer, K., Dibaise, J., Clancy, K., Robinson, M. K., Chang, P., Gertner, J. M., and Lautz, D. Growth hormone, glutamine, and an optimal diet reduces parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Ann.Surg. 2005;242(5):655-661. View abstract.

Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Davison, K. S., and Smith-Palmer, T. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2001;86(2):142-149. View abstract.

Canovas, G., Leon-Sanz, M., Gomez, P., Valero, M. A., Gomis, P., and La Huerta, J. J. Oral glutamine supplements in autologous hematopoietic transplant: impact on gastrointestinal toxicity and plasma protein levels. Haematologica 2000;85(11):1229-1230. View abstract.

Carroll, P. V., Jackson, N. C., Russell-Jones, D. L., Treacher, D. F., Sonksen, P. H., and Umpleby, A. M. Combined growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I in addition to glutamine-supplemented TPN results in net protein anabolism in critical illness. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2004;286(1):E151-E157. View abstract.

Castell, L. M., Poortmans, J. R., and Newsholme, E. A. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur.J.Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1996;73(5):488-490. View abstract.

Castell, L. M., Poortmans, J. R., Leclercq, R., Brasseur, M., Duchateau, J., and Newsholme, E. A. Some aspects of the acute phase response after a marathon race, and the effects of glutamine supplementation. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1997;75(1):47-53. View abstract.

Chen, G., Xie, W., and Jiang, H. [Clinical observation of the protective effect of oral feeding of glutamine granules on intestinal mucous membrane]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2001;17(4):210-211. View abstract.

Claeyssens, S., Bouteloup-Demange, C., Gachon, P., Hecketsweiler, B., Lerebours, E., Lavoinne, A., and Dechelotte, P. Effect of enteral glutamine on leucine, phenylalanine and glutamine metabolism in hypercortisolemic subjects. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2000;278(5):E817-E824. View abstract.

Coeffier, M., Claeyssens, S., Hecketsweiler, B., Lavoinne, A., Ducrotte, P., and Dechelotte, P. Enteral glutamine stimulates protein synthesis and decreases ubiquitin mRNA level in human gut mucosa. Am.J.Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2003;285(2):G266-G273. View abstract.

Coeffier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Hecketsweiler, P., and Dechelotte, P. Effect of glutamine on water and sodium absorption in human jejunum at baseline and during PGE1-induced secretion. J Appl.Physiol 2005;98(6):2163-2168. View abstract.

Conejero, R., Bonet, A., Grau, T., Esteban, A., Mesejo, A., Montejo, J. C., Lopez, J., and Acosta, J. A. Effect of a glutamine-enriched enteral diet on intestinal permeability and infectious morbidity at 28 days in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a randomized, single-blind, prospective, multicenter study. Nutrition 2002;18(9):716-721. View abstract.

Cunha, W. D., Friedler, G., Vaisberg, M., Egami, M. I., and Costa Rosa, L. F. Immunosuppression in undernourished rats: the effect of glutamine supplementation. Clin.Nutr. 2003;22(5):453-457. View abstract.

Darmaun, D., Hayes, V., Schaeffer, D., Welch, S., and Mauras, N. Effects of glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone on protein metabolism in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2004;89(3):1146-1152. View abstract.

Darmaun, D., Roig, J. C., Auestad, N., Sager, B. K., and Neu, J. Glutamine metabolism in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr.Res. 1997;41(3):391-396. View abstract.

de Beaux, A. C., O'Riordain, M. G., Ross, J. A., Jodozi, L., Carter, D. C., and Fearon, K. C. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces blood mononuclear cell interleukin-8 release in severe acute pancreatitis. Nutrition 1998;14(3):261-265. View abstract.

Dechelotte, P., Darmaun, D., Rongier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Rigal, O., and Desjeux, J. F. Absorption and metabolic effects of enterally administered glutamine in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1991;260(5 Pt 1):G677-G682. View abstract.

Dechelotte, P., Hasselmann, M., Cynober, L., Allaouchiche, B., Coeffier, M., Hecketsweiler, B., Merle, V., Mazerolles, M., Samba, D., Guillou, Y. M., Petit, J., Mansoor, O., Colas, G., Cohendy, R., Barnoud, D., Czernichow, P., and Bleichner, G. L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces infectious complications and glucose intolerance in critically ill patients: the French controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2006;34(3):598-604. View abstract.

des, Robert C., Le Bacquer, O., Piloquet, H., Roze, J. C., and Darmaun, D. Acute effects of intravenous glutamine supplementation on protein metabolism in very low birth weight infants: a stable isotope study. Pediatr.Res. 2002;51(1):87-93. View abstract.

Duggan, C., Stark, A. R., Auestad, N., Collier, S., Fulhan, J., Gura, K., Utter, S., Teixeira-Pinto, A., Donovan, K., and Lund, D. Glutamine supplementation in infants with gastrointestinal disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Nutrition 2004;20(9):752-756. View abstract.

Escolar, D. M., Buyse, G., Henricson, E., Leshner, R., Florence, J., Mayhew, J., Tesi-Rocha, C., Gorni, K., Pasquali, L., Patel, K. M., McCarter, R., Huang, J., Mayhew, T., Bertorini, T., Carlo, J., Connolly, A. M., Clemens, P. R., Goemans, N., Iannaccone, S. T., Igarashi, M., Nevo, Y., Pestronk, A., Subramony, S. H., Vedanarayanan, V. V., and Wessel, H. CINRG randomized controlled trial of creatine and glutamine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Ann Neurol 2005;58(1):151-155. View abstract.

Espat, N. J., Watkins, K. T., Lind, D. S., Weis, J. K., Copeland, E. M., and Souba, W. W. Dietary modulation of amino acid transport in rat and human liver. J Surg.Res. 1996;63(1):263-268. View abstract.

Exner, R., Tamandl, D., Goetzinger, P., Mittlboeck, M., Fuegger, R., Sautner, T., Spittler, A., and Roth, E. Perioperative GLY-GLN infusion diminishes the surgery-induced period of immunosuppression: accelerated restoration of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha response. Ann.Surg. 2003;237(1):110-115. View abstract.

Flaring, U. B., Rooyackers, O. E., Wernerman, J., and Hammarqvist, F. Glutamine attenuates post-traumatic glutathione depletion in human muscle. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 2003;104(3):275-282. View abstract.

Fuentes-Orozco, C., Anaya-Prado, R., Gonzalez-Ojeda, A., Arenas-Marquez, H., Cabrera-Pivaral, C., Cervantes-Guevara, G., and Barrera-Zepeda, L. M. L-alanyl-L-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves infectious morbidity in secondary peritonitis. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(1):13-21. View abstract.

Garrel, D., Patenaude, J., Nedelec, B., Samson, L., Dorais, J., Champoux, J., D'Elia, M., and Bernier, J. Decreased mortality and infectious morbidity in adult burn patients given enteral glutamine supplements: a prospective, controlled, randomized clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(10):2444-2449. View abstract.

Giris, M., Erbil, Y., Dogru-Abbasoglu, S., Yanik, B. T., Alis, H., Olgac, V., and Toker, G. A. The effect of heme oxygenase-1 induction by glutamine on TNBS-induced colitis. The effect of glutamine on TNBS colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007;22(6):591-599. View abstract.

Goeters, C., Mertes, N., Kuhmann, M., Lange, V., Dietl, K. H., and Lawin, P. [Safety and tolerance of a new dipeptide-containing amino acid solution DP-Gln 20 versus a conventional amino acid solution Vamin 18EF in patients after elective colon surgery]. Anasthesiol.Intensivmed.Notfallmed.Schmerzther. 1994;29(3):146-149. View abstract.

Goeters, C., Wenn, A., Mertes, N., Wempe, C., Van Aken, H., Stehle, P., and Bone, H. G. Parenteral L-alanyl-L-glutamine improves 6-month outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(9):2032-2037. View abstract.

Gore, D. C. and Jahoor, F. Deficiency in peripheral glutamine production in pediatric patients with burns. J.Burn Care Rehabil. 2000;21(2):171-177. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D. Outcome of critically ill patients after supplementation with glutamine. Nutrition 1997;13(7-8):752-754. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D., Allen, K. D., Andrews, F. J., and Jones, C. Infection, multiple organ failure, and survival in the intensive care unit: influence of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition on acquired infection. Nutrition 2002;18(7-8):546-552. View abstract.

Griffiths, R. D., Jones, C., and Palmer, T. E. Six-month outcome of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 1997;13(4):295-302. View abstract.

Haisch, M., Fukagawa, N. K., and Matthews, D. E. Oxidation of glutamine by the splanchnic bed in humans. Am.J.Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2000;278(4):E593-E602. View abstract.

Hall, J. C., Dobb, G., Hall, J., de Sousa, R., Brennan, L., and McCauley, R. A prospective randomized trial of enteral glutamine in critical illness. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(10):1710-1716. View abstract.

Hallay, J., Kovacs, G., Kiss, Sz S., Farkas, M., Lakos, G., Sipka, S., Bodolay, E., and Sapy, P. Changes in the nutritional state and immune-serological parameters of esophagectomized patients fed jejunaly with glutamine-poor and glutamine-rich nutriments. Hepatogastroenterology 2002;49(48):1555-1559. View abstract.

Hammarqvist, F., Wernerman, J., von der, Decken A., and Vinnars, E. Alanyl-glutamine counteracts the depletion of free glutamine and the postoperative decline in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Ann.Surg. 1990;212(5):637-644. View abstract.

Hankard, R. G., Darmaun, D., Sager, B. K., D'Amore, D., Parsons, W. R., and Haymond, M. Response of glutamine metabolism to exogenous glutamine in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1995;269(4 Pt 1):E663-E670. View abstract.

Hankard, R. G., Haymond, M. W., and Darmaun, D. Effect of glutamine on leucine metabolism in humans. Am.J.Physiol 1996;271(4 Pt 1):E748-E754. View abstract.

Heuschen, U. A., Allemeyer, E. H., Hinz, U., Langer, K., Heuschen, G., Decker-Baumann, C., Herfarth, C., and Stern, J. Glutamine distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli before and after restorative proctocolectomy. Int.J.Colorectal Dis. 2002;17(4):245-252. View abstract.

Himmelseher, S., Pfenninger, E., and Herrmann, P. Cerebrospinal and plasma amino acid concentrations after administration of i.v. glycyl-glutamine and glycyl-tyrosine containing amino acid solutions in humans. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1996;20(4):281-286. View abstract.

Hiscock, N., Petersen, E. W., Krzywkowski, K., Boza, J., Halkjaer-Kristensen, J., and Pedersen, B. K. Glutamine supplementation further enhances exercise-induced plasma IL-6. J.Appl.Physiol 2003;95(1):145-148. View abstract.

Houdijk, A. P., Nijveldt, R. J., and van Leeuwen, P. A. Glutamine-enriched enteral feeding in trauma patients: reduced infectious morbidity is not related to changes in endocrine and metabolic responses. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1999;23(5 Suppl):S52-S58. View abstract.

Huang, E. Y., Leung, S. W., Wang, C. J., Chen, H. C., Sun, L. M., Fang, F. M., Yeh, S. A., Hsu, H. C., and Hsiung, C. Y. Oral glutamine to alleviate radiation-induced oral mucositis: a pilot randomized trial. Int.J.Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 2-1-2000;46(3):535-539. View abstract.

Huffman, F. G. and Walgren, M. E. L-glutamine supplementation improves nelfinavir-associated diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals. HIV.Clin.Trials 2003;4(5):324-329. View abstract.

Hulsewe, K. W., van Acker, B. A., Hameeteman, W., van der Hulst, R. R., Vainas, T., Arends, J. W., van Kreel, B. K., von Meyenfeldt, M. F., and Soeters, P. B. Does glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrition really affect intestinal morphology and gut permeability? Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(5):1217-1225. View abstract.

Inoue, Y., Espat, N. J., Frohnapple, D. J., Epstein, H., Copeland, E. M., and Souba, W. W. Effect of total parenteral nutrition on amino acid and glucose transport by the human small intestine. Ann.Surg. 1993;217(6):604-612. View abstract.

Iwashita, S., Mikus, C., Baier, S., and Flakoll, P. J. Glutamine supplementation increases postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2006;30(2):76-80. View abstract.

Iwashita, S., Williams, P., Jabbour, K., Ueda, T., Kobayashi, H., Baier, S., and Flakoll, P. J. Impact of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise. J Appl.Physiol 2005;99(5):1858-1865. View abstract.

Jacobi, C. A., Ordemann, J., Zuckermann, H., Docke, W., Volk, H. D., and Muller, J. M. [Effect of alanyl-glutamine in postoperative total parenteral nutrition on postoperative immunosuppression and morbidity. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized study]. Langenbecks Arch.Chir Suppl Kongressbd. 1998;115:605-611. View abstract.

Jacobi, C. A., Ordemann, J., Zuckermann, H., Docke, W., Volk, H. D., and Muller, J. M. [The influence of alanyl-glutamine on immunologic functions and morbidity in postoperative total parenteral nutrition. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized trial]. Zentralbl.Chir 1999;124(3):199-205. View abstract.

Jacobson, S. D., Loprinzi, C. L., Sloan, J. A., Wilke, J. L., Novotny, P. J., Okuno, S. H., Jatoi, A., and Moynihan, T. J. Glutamine does not prevent paclitaxel-associated myalgias and arthralgias. J.Support.Oncol. 2003;1(4):274-278. View abstract.

Jensen, G. L., Miller, R. H., Talabiska, D. G., Fish, J., and Gianferante, L. A double-blind, prospective, randomized study of glutamine-enriched compared with standard peptide-based feeding in critically ill patients. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1996;64(4):615-621. View abstract.

Juretic, A., Spagnoli, G. C., Horig, H., Babst, R., von, Bremen K., Harder, F., and Heberer, M. Glutamine requirements in the generation of lymphokine-activated killer cells. Clin.Nutr. 1994;13(1):42-49. View abstract.

Kadrofske, M. M., Parimi, P. S., Gruca, L. L., and Kalhan, S. C. Effect of intravenous amino acids on glutamine and protein kinetics in low-birth-weight preterm infants during the immediate neonatal period. Am.J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2006;290(4):E622-E630. View abstract.

Kalhan, S. C., Parimi, P. S., Gruca, L. L., and Hanson, R. W. Glutamine supplement with parenteral nutrition decreases whole body proteolysis in low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2005;146(5):642-647. View abstract.

Kargotich, S., Rowbottom, D. G., Keast, D., Goodman, C., Dawson, B., and Morton, A. R. Plasma glutamine changes after high-intensity exercise in elite male swimmers. Res.Sports Med 2005;13(1):7-21. View abstract.

Keast, D., Arstein, D., Harper, W., Fry, R. W., and Morton, A. R. Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system. Med.J.Aust. 1-2-1995;162(1):15-18. View abstract.

Kinscherf, R., Hack, V., Fischbach, T., Friedmann, B., Weiss, C., Edler, L., Bartsch, P., and Droge, W. Low plasma glutamine in combination with high glutamate levels indicate risk for loss of body cell mass in healthy individuals: the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine. J.Mol.Med. 1996;74(7):393-400. View abstract.

Klek, S., Kulig, J., Szczepanik, A. M., Jedrys, J., and Kolodziejczyk, P. The clinical value of parenteral immunonutrition in surgical patients. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105(2):175-179. View abstract.

Kozelsky, T. F., Meyers, G. E., Sloan, J. A., Shanahan, T. G., Dick, S. J., Moore, R. L., Engeler, G. P., Frank, A. R., McKone, T. K., Urias, R. E., Pilepich, M. V., Novotny, P. J., and Martenson, J. A. Phase III double-blind study of glutamine versus placebo for the prevention of acute diarrhea in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy. J.Clin.Oncol. 5-1-2003;21(9):1669-1674. View abstract.

Krieger, J. W., Crowe, M., and Blank, S. E. Chronic glutamine supplementation increases nasal but not salivary IgA during 9 days of interval training. J.Appl.Physiol 2004;97(2):585-591. View abstract.

Krzywkowski, K., Petersen, E. W., Ostrowski, K., Kristensen, J. H., Boza, J., and Pedersen, B. K. Effect of glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced changes in lymphocyte function. Am.J.Physiol Cell Physiol 2001;281(4):C1259-C1265. View abstract.

Lacey, J. M., Crouch, J. B., Benfell, K., Ringer, S. A., Wilmore, C. K., Maguire, D., and Wilmore, D. W. The effects of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in premature infants. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1996;20(1):74-80. View abstract.

Lai, Y. N., Yeh, S. L., Lin, M. T., Shang, H. F., Yeh, C. L., and Chen, W. J. Glutamine supplementation enhances mucosal immunity in rats with Gut-Derived sepsis. Nutrition 2004;20(3):286-291. View abstract.

Lehmkuhl, M., Malone, M., Justice, B., Trone, G., Pistilli, E., Vinci, D., Haff, E. E., Kilgore, J. L., and Haff, G. G. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):425-438. View abstract.

Lima, A. A., Brito, L. F., Ribeiro, H. B., Martins, M. C., Lustosa, A. P., Rocha, E. M., Lima, N. L., Monte, C. M., and Guerrant, R. L. Intestinal barrier function and weight gain in malnourished children taking glutamine supplemented enteral formula. J Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2005;40(1):28-35. View abstract.

Lin, M. T., Kung, S. P., Yeh, S. L., Liaw, K. Y., Wang, M. Y., Kuo, M. L., Lee, P. H., and Chen, W. J. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition attenuates plasma interleukin-6 in surgical patients with lower disease severity. World J Gastroenterol. 10-21-2005;11(39):6197-6201. View abstract.

Lin, M. T., Kung, S. P., Yeh, S. L., Lin, C., Lin, T. H., Chen, K. H., Liaw, K. Y., Lee, P. H., Chang, K. J., and Chen, W. J. The effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on nitrogen economy depends on severity of diseases in surgical patients. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(3):213-218. View abstract.

Long, C. L., Borghesi, L., Stahl, R., Clark, J. A., Geiger, J. W., DiRienzo, D. B., Weis, J. K., Laws, H. L., and Blakemore, W. S. Impact of enteral feeding of a glutamine-supplemented formula on the hypoaminoacidemic response in trauma patients. J.Trauma 1996;40(1):97-102. View abstract.

M'bemba, J., Cynober, L., de, Bandt P., Taverna, M., Chevalier, A., Bardin, C., Slama, G., and Selam, J. L. Effects of dipeptide administration on hypoglycaemic counterregulation in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2003;29(4 Pt 1):412-417. View abstract.

MacBurney, M., Young, L. S., Ziegler, T. R., and Wilmore, D. W. A cost-evaluation of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition in adult bone marrow transplant patients. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 1994;94(11):1263-1266. View abstract.

Marcora, S., Lemmey, A., and Maddison, P. Dietary treatment of rheumatoid cachexia with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine and arginine: a randomised controlled trial. Clin.Nutr. 2005;24(3):442-454. View abstract.

May, P. E., Barber, A., D'Olimpio, J. T., Hourihane, A., and Abumrad, N. N. Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine. Am.J.Surg. 2002;183(4):471-479. View abstract.

Mercier, A., Eurin, D., Poulet-Young, V., Marret, S., and Dechelotte, P. Effect of enteral supplementation with glutamine on mesenteric blood flow in premature neonates. Clin.Nutr. 2003;22(2):133-137. View abstract.

Mok, E., Eleouet-Da, Violante C., Daubrosse, C., Gottrand, F., Rigal, O., Fontan, J. E., Cuisset, J. M., Guilhot, J., and Hankard, R. Oral glutamine and amino acid supplementation inhibit whole-body protein degradation in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2006;83(4):823-828. View abstract.

Morais, A. A., Santos, J. E., and Faintuch, J. [Comparative study of arginine and glutamine supplements in malnourished surgical patients]. Rev.Hosp.Clin.Fac.Med.Sao Paulo 1995;50(5):276-279. View abstract.

Morlion, B. J., Siedhoff, H. P., Joosten, U., Koller, M., Konig, W., Furst, P., and Puchstein, C. [Immunomodulation after parenteral glutamine administration in colorectal surgery]. Langenbecks Arch.Chir Suppl Kongressbd. 1996;113:342-344. View abstract.

Muscaritoli, M., Micozzi, A., Conversano, L., Martino, P., Petti, M. C., Cartoni, C., Cascino, A., and Rossi-Fanelli, F. Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Eur.J.Cancer 1997;33(2):319-320. View abstract.

Neri, A., Mariani, F., Piccolomini, A., Testa, M., Vuolo, G., and Di Cosmo, L. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition in major abdominal surgery. Nutrition 2001;17(11-12):968-969. View abstract.

Neu, J., DeMarco, V., and Weiss, M. Glutamine supplementation in low-birth-weight infants: mechanisms of action. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1999;23(5 Suppl):S49-S51. View abstract.

Neu, J., Roig, J. C., Meetze, W. H., Veerman, M., Carter, C., Millsaps, M., Bowling, D., Dallas, M. J., Sleasman, J., Knight, T., and Auestad, N. Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity. J.Pediatr. 1997;131(5):691-699. View abstract.

O'Riordain, M. G., De Beaux, A., and Fearon, K. C. Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient. Nutrition 1996;12(11-12 Suppl):S82-S84. View abstract.

O'Riordain, M. G., Fearon, K. C., Ross, J. A., Rogers, P., Falconer, J. S., Bartolo, D. C., Garden, O. J., and Carter, D. C. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition enhances T-lymphocyte response in surgical patients undergoing colorectal resection. Ann.Surg. 1994;220(2):212-221. View abstract.

Ockenga, J., Borchert, K., Rifai, K., Manns, M. P., and Bischoff, S. C. Effect of glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(5):409-416. View abstract.

Ockenga, J., Borchert, K., Stuber, E., Lochs, H., Manns, M. P., and Bischoff, S. C. Glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2005;59(11):1302-1309. View abstract.

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Peng, X., You, Z. Y., Huang, X. K., Zhang, S. Q., He, G. Z., Xie, W. G., and Quan, Z. F. [Effects of glutamine granules on protein metabolism in trauma patients]. Zhonghua Wai Ke.Za Zhi. 4-7-2004;42(7):406-409. View abstract.

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Piccirillo, N., De Matteis, S., Laurenti, L., Chiusolo, P., Sora, F., Pittiruti, M., Rutella, S., Cicconi, S., Fiorini, A., D'Onofrio, G., Leone, G., and Sica, S. Glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrition after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: effects on immune reconstitution and mucositis. Haematologica 2003;88(2):192-200. View abstract.

Poindexter, B. B., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Stoll, B. J., Koch, M. A., Wright, L. L., Oh, W., Papile, L. A., Bauer, C. R., Carlo, W. A., Donovan, E. F., Fanaroff, A. A., Korones, S. B., Laptook, A. R., Shankaran, S., Stevenson, D. K., Tyson, J. E., and Lemons, J. A. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on plasma amino acid concentrations in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;77(3):737-743. View abstract.

Poindexter, B. B., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Stoll, B. J., Wright, L. L., Poole, W. K., Oh, W., Bauer, C. R., Papile, L. A., Tyson, J. E., Carlo, W. A., Laptook, A. R., Narendran, V., Stevenson, D. K., Fanaroff, A. A., Korones, S. B., Shankaran, S., Finer, N. N., and Lemons, J. A. Parenteral glutamine supplementation does not reduce the risk of mortality or late-onset sepsis in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2004;113(5):1209-1215. View abstract.

Poindexter, B. B., Langer, J. C., Dusick, A. M., and Ehrenkranz, R. A. Early provision of parenteral amino acids in extremely low birth weight infants: relation to growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. J Pediatr. 2006;148(3):300-305. View abstract.

Powell-Tuck, J. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide shortened hospital stays and improved immune status and nitrogen economy after major abdominal surgery. Gut 1999;44(2):155. View abstract.

Prada, P. O., Hirabara, S. M., de Souza, C. T., Schenka, A. A., Zecchin, H. G., Vassallo, J., Velloso, L. A., Carneiro, E., Carvalheira, J. B., Curi, R., and Saad, M. J. L-glutamine supplementation induces insulin resistance in adipose tissue and improves insulin signalling in liver and muscle of rats with diet-induced obesity. Diabetologia 2007;50(9):1949-1959. View abstract.

Pytlik, R., Benes, P., Patorkova, M., Chocenska, E., Gregora, E., Prochazka, B., and Kozak, T. Standardized parenteral alanyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is not beneficial in autologous transplant patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;30(12):953-961. View abstract.

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Scheid, C., Hermann, K., Kremer, G., Holsing, A., Heck, G., Fuchs, M., Waldschmidt, D., Herrmann, H. J., Sohngen, D., Diehl, V., and Schwenk, A. Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of glycyl-glutamine-dipeptide in the parenteral nutrition of patients with acute leukemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy. Nutrition 2004;20(3):249-254. View abstract.

Scheltinga, M. R., Young, L. S., Benfell, K., Bye, R. L., Ziegler, T. R., Santos, A. A., Antin, J. H., Schloerb, P. R., and Wilmore, D. W. Glutamine-enriched intravenous feedings attenuate extracellular fluid expansion after a standard stress. Ann.Surg. 1991;214(4):385-393. View abstract.

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Schulman, A. S., Willcutts, K. F., Claridge, J. A., Evans, H. L., Radigan, A. E., O'Donnell, K. B., Camden, J. R., Chong, T. W., McElearney, S. T., Smith, R. L., Gazoni, L. M., Farinholt, H. M., Heuser, C. C., Lowson, S. M., Schirmer, B. D., Young, J. S., and Sawyer, R. G. Does the addition of glutamine to enteral feeds affect patient mortality? Crit Care Med 2005;33(11):2501-2506. View abstract.

Schulman, A. S., Willcutts, K. F., Claridge, J. A., O'Donnell, K. B., Radigan, A. E., Evans, H. L., McElearney, S. T., Hedrick, T. L., Lowson, S. M., Schirmer, B. D., Young, J. S., and Sawyer, R. G. Does enteral glutamine supplementation decrease infectious morbidity? Surg.Infect.(Larchmt.) 2006;7(1):29-35. View abstract.

Sheridan, R. L., Prelack, K., Yu, Y. M., Lydon, M., Petras, L., Young, V. R., and Tompkins, R. G. Short-term enteral glutamine does not enhance protein accretion in burned children: a stable isotope study. Surgery 2004;135(6):671-678. View abstract.

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Stubblefield, M. D., Vahdat, L. T., Balmaceda, C. M., Troxel, A. B., Hesdorffer, C. S., and Gooch, C. L. Glutamine as a neuroprotective agent in high-dose paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: a clinical and electrophysiologic study. Clin.Oncol.(R.Coll.Radiol.) 2005;17(4):271-276. View abstract.

Suojaranta-Ylinen, R., Ruokonen, E., Pulkki, K., Mertsola, J., and Takala, J. Preoperative glutamine loading does not prevent endotoxemia in cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 1997;41(3):385-391. View abstract.

Sykorova, A., Horacek, J., Zak, P., Kmonicek, M., Bukac, J., and Maly, J. A randomized, double blind comparative study of prophylactic parenteral nutritional support with or without glutamine in autologous stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies -- three years' follow-up. Neoplasma 2005;52(6):476-482. View abstract.

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van Acker, B. A., Hulsewe, K. W., Wagenmakers, A. J., Deutz, N. E., van Kreel, B. K., Halliday, D., Matthews, D. E., Soeters, P. B., and von Meyenfeldt, M. F. Absence of glutamine isotopic steady state: implications for the assessment of whole-body glutamine production rate. Clin.Sci.(Lond) 1998;95(3):339-346. View abstract.

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